If you’re short on time, here’s the quick answer: A hotel’s gross operating profit is the amount left after deducting operating expenses from total revenue, before accounting for taxes and interest payments.

This comprehensive 3000-word guide will explain what goes into calculating gross operating profit for hotels. We’ll look at the key revenue streams, typical operating expenses, how to calculate GOP, and strategies to improve it through revenue management and cost control.

Hotel Revenue Streams

When it comes to the profitability of a hotel, understanding the different revenue streams is essential. A hotel’s gross operating profit is determined by various sources of income that contribute to its overall financial success.

Let’s take a closer look at the three main revenue streams for hotels: room revenue, food and beverage revenue, and ancillary revenue.

Room Revenue

Room revenue is the primary source of income for most hotels. It includes the revenue generated from selling hotel rooms to guests. This revenue stream is influenced by factors such as room rates, occupancy rates, and average daily rate (ADR).

Hoteliers strive to maximize room revenue by implementing effective pricing strategies, offering attractive packages, and ensuring high occupancy levels. According to a report by Hotel News Now, the US hotel room revenue reached an all-time high in 2019, highlighting the importance of this revenue stream.

Food and Beverage Revenue

Food and beverage revenue is another significant contributor to a hotel’s profitability. This revenue stream includes income generated from restaurants, bars, room service, and catering services. Hotels may operate multiple dining outlets, each offering a unique experience to guests.

To boost food and beverage revenue, hotels often focus on providing exceptional dining experiences, offering diverse menu options, and promoting their outlets to both hotel guests and the local community.

According to a study by National Restaurant Association, hotels with successful food and beverage operations can significantly enhance their overall profitability.

Ancillary Revenue

Ancillary revenue refers to the income generated from non-room and non-food and beverage sources. This revenue stream includes revenue from services such as spa treatments, fitness center usage, parking fees, Wi-Fi charges, and other amenities offered by the hotel.

Ancillary revenue is an excellent opportunity for hotels to increase their overall profitability. By providing attractive and well-priced ancillary services, hotels can enhance the guest experience while generating additional income.

According to a report by Hospitality Net, ancillary revenue has become an essential part of a hotel’s financial strategy, with many properties focusing on innovative ways to increase this revenue stream.

Hotel Operating Expenses

Operating expenses play a crucial role in determining the profitability of a hotel. These expenses encompass various areas such as payroll, supplies and services, energy and utilities, maintenance, and marketing.

By understanding and effectively managing these expenses, hotel owners and managers can optimize their gross operating profit and achieve long-term success.


Payroll is one of the largest components of hotel operating expenses. It includes wages, salaries, and benefits for hotel staff across different departments such as front desk, housekeeping, food and beverage, and administration.

To control payroll expenses, hotels often utilize labor management systems, implement efficient scheduling practices, and provide training to enhance employee productivity. Additionally, hotels may also consider outsourcing certain functions to reduce overall labor costs.

According to a survey by Hotel News Resource, labor costs account for approximately 40-50% of a hotel’s total operating expenses.

Supplies and Services

Supplies and services encompass the costs associated with the day-to-day operations of a hotel. This includes the purchase of linens, toiletries, cleaning supplies, and other consumables. Additionally, it includes expenses related to third-party services such as laundry, pest control, landscaping, and waste management.

Hotels can minimize these expenses by negotiating favorable contracts with suppliers, implementing efficient inventory management systems, and exploring cost-saving alternatives. According to a study by Hotel Management, supplies and services typically account for around 10-15% of a hotel’s total operating expenses.

Energy and Utilities

Energy and utilities, including electricity, water, gas, and waste disposal, are significant expenses for hotels. With the growing emphasis on sustainable practices, many hotels are adopting energy-efficient technologies and implementing conservation measures to reduce their environmental impact and lower operating costs.

These may include the use of LED lighting, energy management systems, water-saving fixtures, and recycling programs. According to the American Hotel & Lodging Association, energy costs typically account for 4-6% of a hotel’s total operating expenses.


Maintenance expenses cover the upkeep and repair of a hotel’s physical assets, including the building, equipment, and facilities. These costs can include routine maintenance, repairs, and replacements.

By implementing preventive maintenance programs and conducting regular inspections, hotels can minimize the risk of breakdowns and costly repairs. Additionally, hotels may consider outsourcing maintenance tasks to specialized contractors for more efficient and cost-effective solutions.

According to a report by Hotel Business, maintenance expenses typically account for around 3-5% of a hotel’s total operating expenses.


Marketing expenses encompass the costs associated with promoting a hotel’s brand, attracting guests, and driving revenue. This includes advertising campaigns, website development, social media marketing, and public relations activities.

Hotels may also allocate funds for participating in industry events and trade shows. It is essential for hotels to carefully evaluate the return on investment for marketing initiatives and allocate resources strategically to maximize their impact.

According to a report by Hotel Online, marketing expenses typically account for 3-6% of a hotel’s total operating expenses.

By diligently managing and optimizing these key operating expenses, hotels can enhance their gross operating profit and achieve sustainable success in the competitive hospitality industry.

How to Calculate Gross Operating Profit

Calculating gross operating profit (GOP) is essential for any hotel to determine its financial performance and profitability. GOP is a key metric that represents the revenue left over after deducting operating expenses.

It is an important indicator of a hotel’s operational efficiency and overall success.

Total Revenue – Operating Expenses = GOP

The formula to calculate GOP is quite straightforward. You simply subtract the total operating expenses from the total revenue. Operating expenses include costs like wages, utilities, marketing expenses, and maintenance costs.

By subtracting these expenses from the revenue, you can determine the overall profit generated by the hotel.

For example, if a hotel has a total revenue of $500,000 and operating expenses of $300,000, the GOP would be $200,000 ($500,000 – $300,000).

GOP Percentage and GOP PAR

While the GOP provides a clear picture of a hotel’s profitability, it is also important to consider the GOP percentage and GOP PAR (per available room). The GOP percentage is the ratio of GOP to total revenue, expressed as a percentage.

It helps in understanding the hotel’s financial performance relative to its revenue.

GOP PAR, on the other hand, is calculated by dividing the GOP by the total number of available rooms in a hotel. It is a useful metric to compare the profitability of different hotels, especially those with varying room capacities.

For instance, if a hotel has a GOP of $200,000 and a total revenue of $500,000, the GOP percentage would be 40% ($200,000 / $500,000 x 100), indicating that 40% of the revenue is profit. If the hotel has 100 available rooms, the GOP PAR would be $2,000 ($200,000 / 100).

Trends and Benchmarks

Understanding the GOP is not only crucial for assessing a hotel’s financial health but also for benchmarking its performance against industry standards. By comparing the GOP with similar hotels in the same market or region, hoteliers can identify areas of improvement and make informed decisions to enhance profitability.

Industry reports and studies can provide valuable insights into average GOP percentages and GOP PARs for different hotel segments. Websites like Hotel News Now and HospitalityNet offer comprehensive data and analysis on industry trends, allowing hoteliers to stay updated and make data-driven decisions.

Maximizing GOP Through Revenue Management

Forecasting and Data Analysis

One of the key strategies for maximizing Gross Operating Profit (GOP) in the hotel industry is through effective forecasting and data analysis. By analyzing historical data, market trends, and customer behavior, hotels can make informed decisions about pricing and inventory management.

Forecasting helps hotels anticipate demand patterns and adjust their rates accordingly, ensuring that they are maximizing revenue during peak periods and minimizing losses during low-demand periods. This data-driven approach allows hotels to optimize their resources and maximize their GOP.

Dynamic Pricing and OTA Management

Dynamic pricing is another important aspect of revenue management that can significantly impact a hotel’s GOP. By leveraging technology and real-time data, hotels can adjust their room rates based on factors such as demand, competition, and market conditions.

This allows hotels to optimize their pricing strategies and capture the maximum revenue from each booking. Additionally, effective management of Online Travel Agencies (OTAs) is crucial for maximizing GOP.

By negotiating favorable commission rates, optimizing OTA listings, and monitoring OTA performance, hotels can increase their revenue while minimizing distribution costs.

Optimizing Channel Mix

The channel mix refers to the distribution channels through which hotels sell their rooms, such as direct bookings, OTAs, and travel agents. Optimizing the channel mix is essential for maximizing GOP as it allows hotels to reach the right target audience while minimizing distribution costs.

By analyzing the performance of each channel and understanding the customer segments they attract, hotels can allocate their resources effectively. For example, if a hotel finds that direct bookings result in higher revenue and lower distribution costs, they can prioritize marketing efforts towards driving direct bookings.

Conversely, if a particular OTA brings in a significant number of bookings at a reasonable cost, the hotel can focus on strengthening their partnership with that OTA.

By implementing effective revenue management strategies such as forecasting and data analysis, dynamic pricing, and optimizing the channel mix, hotels can maximize their GOP and drive profitability. It is important for hotels to continuously monitor and analyze their performance to identify areas for improvement and adapt their strategies accordingly.

Controlling Costs to Improve GOP

Managing Labor Costs

One of the key areas where hotels can control costs to improve Gross Operating Profit (GOP) is by managing labor costs effectively. This involves finding the right balance between staffing levels and guest demand.

By closely monitoring occupancy rates, reservation patterns, and historical data, hotel managers can make informed decisions about scheduling staff to ensure optimal coverage during peak periods while avoiding overstaffing during slower times.

Additionally, implementing efficient labor management systems and cross-training employees can help maximize productivity and reduce the need for additional staff.

Sourcing and Supplier Management

Another important factor in controlling costs is effective sourcing and supplier management. By negotiating favorable contracts with suppliers and regularly reviewing pricing and quality, hotels can ensure they are getting the best value for their money.

This includes sourcing products and services from reliable and cost-effective suppliers, monitoring market trends, and exploring alternative options. By continuously evaluating and optimizing their supply chain, hotels can reduce costs without compromising on quality.

Energy Efficiency

Energy costs can be a significant expense for hotels, but implementing energy-efficient practices can help reduce these costs and improve GOP. This can include simple measures such as using energy-efficient lighting, installing motion sensors in rooms and common areas, and implementing smart thermostats for temperature control.

Additionally, hotels can invest in energy-efficient equipment and appliances, such as low-flow faucets and showerheads, which can result in substantial savings over time. By prioritizing energy efficiency, hotels can not only reduce costs but also contribute to a more sustainable environment.

Preventive Maintenance

Implementing a proactive approach to maintenance can also help control costs and improve GOP. By conducting regular inspections and preventive maintenance on equipment, hotels can identify and address potential issues before they become major problems.

This can help avoid costly emergency repairs and minimize downtime, ensuring that hotel operations run smoothly. Additionally, preventive maintenance can extend the lifespan of equipment, reducing the need for frequent replacements and saving on capital expenditures.

By focusing on controlling costs in these key areas, hotels can improve their Gross Operating Profit and ultimately increase their overall profitability. Effective labor management, strategic sourcing, energy efficiency, and preventive maintenance not only contribute to cost savings but also enhance guest satisfaction and the overall guest experience, leading to repeat business and positive word-of-mouth recommendations.


In summary, a hotel’s gross operating profit is a key metric of financial health and profitability. By optimizing pricing, channels, and revenue streams, and controlling costs, hotel managers can maximize GOP. Tracking GOP provides insight to benchmark against past performance and industry standards.

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